Real time prediction and pax flow optimization


Pax Flow Solution

The PAX FLOW SOLUTION enables fast, predictive analysis of the various processes in airport terminals. Integrated into the airport’s operating systems, this solution provides the best possible view on the next hours of operations. Thus, airport operators can use and staff resources more efficiently than before.

Passenger flows, numbers, and distribution as well as resource and facility requirements for the next minutes and hours are continuously calculated and the results / KPIs are distributed to all relevant stakeholders enabling them to proactively manage resources and optimize passenger flows.

What-If functions allow decision options to be compared and evaluated within a minimum of time. Beyond real-time prediction the PAX FLOW SOLUTION supports pre-operational and tactical terminal capacity planning.

The PAX FLOW SOLUTION is designed especially for the needs of airport operators to support the operational terminal processes. The solution can be used for real-time prediction of terminal processes in an operational environment as well as for tactical terminal capacity planning.

Facts & Benefits

  • Realistic prediction for and on day of operations
  • Demand-based capacity planning and operations
  • Improved passenger flow management
  • Resource optimization
  • Supports strategic and tactical planning
  • What-if scenario analysis
  • Always up-to-date data base
CAST Express Simulation User Interface

Key features of the PAX Flow Solution

  • Accurate prediction of the number of expected passengers at all terminal processes and areas
  • Advanced facility requirement (FR) features to optimize the FR calculation
  • “What-if” analysis for testing operational concepts
  • Dashboard views with integrated live data for easy access to results
  • Cloud or on-premises installation for flexible usage with the airports IT systems
  • Continuous analysis of real-time data sources to re-calibrate the system
  • Experts support through ARC staff for the initial model development, system calibration, change management and training

most precise real-time prediction


To optimize passenger flows and process planning on the day of operation, the solution accesses the airport’s IT data like AODB, resource management systems and live process monitoring systems. The PAX FLOW SOLUTION automatically and regularly simulates the next hours of operation based on the latest system data available. This gives the airport operator the most precise real-time prediction on the passenger flows in the terminal and allows an optimized resource supply including the expected waiting times.

execution of “what-if-scenarios”


The execution of “what-if-scenarios” allows the user to analyze and compare different scenarios. Hence, the airport operator will be perfectly prepared if there are for example additional flights, a failure of resources or a delayed flight.


Dashboard views on the results compared to live-data give a predictive insight and common understanding of the expected terminal operation to all relevant stakeholders. Thus, it becomes easy to identify the most suitable solution to overcome the challenges of changing conditions.

Selected Projects

Incheon International Airport
Pax Flow Solution
powered by CAST
Incheon Airport requested a solution to predict the capacity situation on the day of operation and to be able to carry out strategic and tactical planning of the airport processes. [...]
Hong Kong International Airport
Terminal Collaborative Decision Making (TCDM)
With the Pax Flow Solution powered by CAST, airport stakeholders get a common view on the planned capacity situation and expected demand at all terminal processors. Connected to the airport [...]
Munich Airport
Pax Flow Solution
powered by CAST
A precise view on the next hours of operations significantly optimizes staff planning and thus passenger convenience. The CAST Express technology converts the real-time flight schedule and live sensor data [...]

How does it work?

Digital Twin Technology

Compared to other approaches, where predictions are purely driven by historical data, the PAX Flow Solution is based on the digital twin concept, meaning that a simulation model of the passenger terminal with all relevant processes calculates the prediction results.

  • Simulation model of the airport terminal
  • Passenger handling processes like check-in, security control, etc.
  • Operational rules like throughput, opening concept, allocation rules etc.
  • Input parameters and statistics based on Big Data analysis

Airport Database Live Access

The simulation model is integrated within the airport’s operational systems and has interfaces to available live data sources and tracking information:

  • Latest flight schedules incl. delays, flight event data (FLIRT) etc.
  • Latest resource allocation
  • Live PAX flow tracking information
  • Live process performance data

PAX Flow Simulation of the next 24h

With these live updated data sets, a new simulation run is triggered automatically and without any manual interaction every 5-15 min to predict the passenger flow for the current day of operation.

  • Usage of the latest flight schedule and live tracking data
  • New simulation run automatically every 5-15 min.
  • No manual interaction needed
  • Forecasting the next 24 hours
  • Supports also tactical planning for next day, week etc.

Capacity Forecast for the Day of Operation

Because every single passenger incl. individual characteristic (show-up profile, bag number, etc.) is simulated with the most current flight schedule, the PAX flow and process utilizations within the next hours can be predicted:

  • Forecasting the overall passenger flow
  • Detection of potentially upcoming congestions
  • Re-allocation of resources to avoid bottlenecks in advance
  • Optimization of relevant KPIs (waiting times etc.) to increase passenger experience

Sharing Information via Dashboards

Managing an airport on the day of operation is a highly complex task with many stakeholders involved. Therefore, it is key that all stakeholders have access to the same information (Single Source of Truth Concept) to work seamlessly together.

  • Result access for all stakeholders
  • Customized dashboards tailored to stakeholders’ needs
  • Web access support via smartphone, tablet, etc.
  • Automated alerts e.g., if defined KPI is reached

Mitigation of Capacity Issues in Advance

Based on the constantly updated simulation results actions to optimize the passenger flow and mitigate capacity issues on the day of operation can be evaluated in advance before these problems become reality.

  • Monitoring potential issues on critical resources
  • Prevention of critical capacity problems
  • Acting in time before it gets too late

Testing of Strategies with “What-if”Runs

As there might be different options to solve critical problems the stakeholders can even use the simulation platform to run their own ‘What-if’ scenarios to make smart decisions.

  • Customized stakeholder access to the simulation platform
  • Sandbox for scenario analysis
  • Stakeholders can test different actions to evaluate the effect
  • Changes made are shared with other stakeholders

Want to step further?


The combination with SECURITY MANAGEMENT SOLUTION gives you the unique opportunity to include customized and highly accurate prediction of resource supply. Included Change Management guarantees a successful realization of the new approach.