Worldwide Aviation Consultancy Services.
capacity assessment and optimization

Capacity Assessment & Optimization

master planning and design

Master planning & design

airport simulation services

Airport simulation services

market analysis and forecast

Market analysis & forecast

ARC offers its customers consultancy in all areas of airport planning and airport operations.


Considering the highest quality requirements for efficiency, passenger experience, sustainability and the environment, the scope of services ranges from airport master planning, airport simulation consulting, airport capacity assessment & optimization, aviation market analysis & forecasting to expert consulting in operations and technical studies.

An interdisciplinary team of experts ranging from architects, civil, traffic and aerospace engineers to economists work in close co-operation with the client and are selectively chosen to meet the requirements of every project in an optimal way.

The unique combination of long-term experience and well established methodologies with ARC’s commitment to apply state of the art technologies like Fast Time Simulation, Big Data Analytics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) leads to results of highest quality and practical relevance. Project control and change management complete the services of the ARC.

Find more specific information below or discover project examples here

Airport Master Planning

ARC offers comprehensive services, ranging from the development of early conceptual studies, the comprehensive creation of airport master plans and conduction of aeronautical studies to the functional planning of airport facilities.


In the context of international airport master planning ARC’s services include the planning and design of all airport airside and landside systems including facility requirement and functional programming, facility sizing, layout planning, obstacle surface planning, ICAO compliance checks, etc.

Additionally, ARC cooperates with a broad range of partners, offering clients a wide selection of services with regard to master planning, including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Master plan development and optimization
  • Development of aeronautical and conceptual studies
  • Evaluation of existing plans
  • Environmental impact studies
  • Layout development for runway, taxiway and apron systems
  • Layout development for passenger terminals
  • Capacity calculations
  • Functional planning of all airport areas
  • Determination of the optimal tower / apron control position
  • General design and detailed planning of all facilities (i.e. catering, cargo, fire brigade, maintenance halls, hotels, offices, etc.)
  • Evaluation of airport access system (curbside, parking systems, rail facilities, etc.)


  • Master plan development and optimization
  • Aeronautical studies
  • Airport layout development
  • Functional planning
  • Capacity calculation
  • ICAO Annex 14 compatibility checks and optimization
  • OLS – Obstacle limitation surface planning

ARC utilizes an integrated approach, being able to offer tailor-made master plan concepts which suit all individual airport requirements. If needed, the functional relevance of plans is evaluated, validated and optimized for future use with sophisticated simulations.

The results of these studies are processed according to the client’s demands, including master plan layouts, functional plans, detailed blueprints and technical descriptions.

Airside Planning & Simulation

Airside Planning and Simulation – Design and Optimization of Airside Facilities and Infrastructure


The services offered by ARC encompass all aspects of airside planning and capacity analysis.  From evaluating existing facilities, to developing airside layouts and operational concepts for efficient use of airside resources (i.e. runways, taxiways aprons, and aircraft stands), our service support you in order to optimize investment and reduce operational cost.


ARC assists airports to:  

  • Validate and optimize airside planning
  • Match infrastructure development to long-term demand
  • Accelerate the planning process and minimize risks of decision making
  • Develop and optimize project phasing (when to build, what to build, how to build)
  • Perform capacity studies for airspace, runways, taxiways and stands
  • Optimize processes, operational strategies and improve capacity
  • Determine declared capacity
  • Optimize resource utilization e.g. for runways and aircraft stands
  • Obstacle Surface Planning (ICAO, FAA and other rules)
  • Tower Planning (optimal height and position)
  • Optimize de-icing and snow clearance procedures

Services offered by ARC include:

  • On site-analysis and expert discussion
  • Close cooperation with the client
  • Data collection and evaluation
  • Detailed planning including 2D/3D visualization
  • CAST Simulation services
  • International benchmarking
  • Provision of expert reports and studies
  • Development and evaluation of decision alternatives
  • Systems optimization (airspace, runways, taxiways, aprons and stands)
  • Customer orientated and tangible results and recommendations


  • Improvement of planning reliability
  • Speed up of planning process
  • More capacity, less delays
  • Demand-oriented development of infrastructure
  • Improvement of capacity
  • Simulation and visualization
  • Optimized investments
  • Reduced operational costs

Terminal Planning & Simulation

The services offered by ARC encompass all aspects of terminal planning. From evaluating existing facilities, to developing terminal layouts and operational concepts for efficient use of resources within the terminal (i.e. check-in, security controls, baggage check), our goal is to enhance the function of terminal buildings, guaranteeing long-term utilization and preventing unnecessary investment costs.


Apart from planning new terminal buildings, the evaluation and improvement of existing terminal buildings and their facilities are an essential part of the planning objectives Analyzing and evaluating airport operations, in conjunction with capacity and functional analyses, can lead to the detection of unused reserves and the postponement or even prevention of cost-intensive expansion issues.

ARC‘s consulting services range from developing terminal layouts as well as operational concepts for new and existing terminal buildings, up to evaluating existing facilities for a more efficient usage of resources (i.e. check-in, security controls, baggage check, etc.). ARC’s goal is to improve terminal building functionality, thus guaranteeing a long-term usage of the terminal facility, which in turn prevents additional investment costs. In order to attain the highest possible level of planning accuracy, ARC employs its multi-agent 3D airport simulation system CAST Terminal, to illustrate passenger flows and the baggage handling systems. Consequently, an accurate representation of the terminal environment is made, which can be used for further terminal layout analyses.


  • Terminal facility planning
  • Capacity analysis
  • Passenger and baggage flow optimization
  • Architectural concept design
  • Low-Cost-High-Quality Terminal

ARC offers a variety of services with regard to terminal planning, for example:

  • Terminal facility planning
  • Capacity and functionality analysis
  • Service quality evaluation
  • Alternative terminal layout concept evaluation
  • Alternative operational strategy development
  • Architectural concept design
  • Creation of CAD models (2D and/or 3D)
  • Validation of planned terminal design by simulation

Market Analysis, Forecast & Flight Schedule Development

Business planning requires extensive knowledge of the anticipated volume of traffic. Accurate forecasting of this data is essential for the approval process and the planning of investments and infrastructure. Besides a wide range of consulting services, ARC has a proven record in assisting international and national airports and airlines with expert reports on market analysis and aviation demand forecasts.


The forecasts and market analyses focus on global market and growth tendencies as well as on specific conditions at individual airports, their catchment areas and market segments. Forecast models developed by ARC consider a combination of factors, including economic development, socio-demographic structures, global growth trends, airport infrastructure, airline fleet development as well as competing offerings or potential growth constraints. In addition, ARC has access to extensive data resources for the creation of market analyses and forecasts.

Depending on the client’s needs, aviation demand forecasts can be produced on different levels of granularity. The data can be presented in different ways, depending on which sector of the market is intended to reach.


ARC can create demand forecasts that reflect both annual traffic data and forecast flight schedules for a future design day or a future design peak week. Furthermore, ARC also offers a detailed analysis and forecast of the future peak hour/day/month of the respective airport. These well-founded forecasts can be used as a baseline for all kind of economic strategic long-term and medium-term infrastructure and business planning.


  • Market potential analysis
  • Traffic forecas
  • Design day flight schedules
  • Analysis and forecast of peak hours / days / months
  • Customized results and data reports

Services offered by ARC include:

  • Status quo analysis
  • Market potential analysis at country, region and city level
  • Traffic forecasting for passenger, cargo and air mail market
  • Analysis of airport choice behavior
  • Competitiveness of market strategy
  • Capacity studies
  • Market surveys
  • Airline route and fleet planning and base selection
  • Flight schedule analysis
  • Generation of input data for capacity, noise and environmental calculations
  • Analysis and forecast of peak hours / days / months

Capacity Assessment

Due to the continuous traffic growth in the aviation market, one of the most important factors for short- and long-term economic success of an airport is to provide sufficient capacity in all parts of an airport. At the same time, the provided capacity needs to be used in the most efficient way.


ARC has supported many airports in capacity assessment, analysis and optimization of all relevant airport facilities considering aircraft and vehicle traffic as well as the passenger and baggage flows. Performed capacity studies aimed at

Dimensioning of terminal infrastructure

  • New terminals / terminal extension
  • Number of required service facilities
  • Required area for waiting and circulation

Bottleneck detection

  • Achieving IATA service levels
  • Balancing of facilities
  • Assessment of future traffic demand / flight schedules

Optimization of infrastructure usage

  • Test of operational concepts
  • Optimization of resource allocation
  • Optimization of staffing

Capacity studies can comprise elements but also the overall airport system, including

  • Passenger terminals
  • Baggage handling system
  • Runway system
  • Taxiway system
  • Apron
  • Curbside traffic

ARC uses both analytical models and simulation models to have the right tool at hand to efficiently perform the required task. The application of the world wide leading airport simulation tool CAST (developed and distributed by ARC) allows the analysis of even complex interdependencies and its 3D environment successfully considers site-specific space characteristics.

This allows to assess existing and also future capacity limits and congestion levels or to perform process flow and peak analysis studies. Bottlenecks are identified and strategies and measures how to solve these bottlenecks can easily be elaborated by various „what-if“ scenarios.

Aeronautical Studies

Aeronautical studies are conducted to identify alternative means in order to achieve an equivalent level of safety. These studies assess the impact of deviations from the aerodrome standards, published and recommended by the ICAO, as well as the national regulations. They also present effective alternatives to compensate for the deviation and to ensure highest safety standards.


Due to the complexity of this issue, aerodrome and flight operational expertise is needed as well as the provision of adequate software tools.


Applying a systematic and well-documented approach as well as proven procedures and data sources, ARC is able to provide a comprehensive hazard identification, followed by a detailed analysis of causal factors including severity and likelihood. Based on this gap analysis, effective mitigation measures can be elaborated in a convincing report.

ARC has extensive experience in conducting aeronautical studies, including but not limited to:

  • Assessment of the obstacle situation
  • Design of airside facilities (runways, taxiways, apron) according to international standards as ICAO
  • Compatibility control of different aircraft types
  • Assessment of visibility (e.g. from tower)
  • Detail planning of taxiway curves / shoulders
  • Orientation of runway according to wind data
  • Calculation of tow curves


  • Precise assessment of obstacle situation and visibility
  • Comprehensive analysis of hazards and safety gaps
  • Elaboration of effective mitigation measures
  • Impressive visualization by 3D simulation support
  • Design of airside facilities according to international standards (ICAO)
  • Detail planning of taxiway curves and runways

In order to meet all requirements of airport planners, ARC has developed different CAD-based airport tools, which on the one hand save a great deal of time when planning an airport, on the other hand provide impressive visualization for all involved stakeholders.


References include:

  • Tower position optimization at Frankfurt Airport (FRA) , Berlin Brandenburg International (BER) and Dublin Airport (DUB)
  • Obstacle surface planning at Zurich Airport (ZRH) , Berlin Brandenburg International (BER) and Gelendzhik Airport (GDZ)
  • Runway direction optimization at Cologne Bonn Airport (CGN) , Sochi Airport (AER) and Reykjavik Airport (REK)

Level of Service Assessment

CAST Terminal is the recommended simulation tool to check the compliance of terminal facilities with the desired Level of Service. CAST Terminal extensively has been used by IATA Consulting in projects with the focus on Level of Service Assessments.


Airports around the world strive to offer their passengers a pleasant journey. All optimization measures should begin with a fair-minded and unbiased analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the passenger terminal.International organizations like IATA provide a framework to compare key performance indicators like waiting time and available space with. This allows assessing the level of service at an airport and comparing it with industry standards.

Airport simulation is a future proof approach: In contrast to on-site observations, it not only allows to assess the level of service of today’s operation but also analyzes the effect of planned infrastructure or operational improvements.


Airports that have built a simulation model appreciate it as a versatile tool: A reliable detector for possible weak points of the terminal and a valuable test field for mitigation actions to find the most efficient approach.


  • Simulation of all terminal facilities
  • Waiting time and space assessment
  • Application for IATA or user-defined service standards
  • Analysis of current and future traffic
  • Realistic visualization of results
  • Detection of bottlenecks
  • Test of mitigation measures
  • Well-founded decision support

Subset of References

  • Abu Dhabi International Airport (AUH)
  • Dubai Al Maktoum International Airport (DWC)
  • Düsseldorf International Airport (DUS)
  • St Petersburg Pukovo Airport (LED)
  • Quito Mariscal Sucre International Airport (UIO)
  • Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL)

Declared Capacity Determination

ARC is the independent partner for airports and authorities to determine the airport’s declared capacity using state-of-the-art simulation technologies.


Every slot-coordinated airport has to provide the so-called ‘declared capacity’ for the next winter or summer season, before the slot allocation process with airlines can start. ARC’s consulting services include a comprehensive analysis of historical and planned flight schedules to identify representative busy days for the capacity assessment, e.g. in terms of fleet mix or operational conditions.

Additional aircraft movements are systematically added to the selected peaks and the resulting delays are analyzed with ARC’s airport simulation suite CAST.

In contrast to analytical calculation methods, CAST can easily consider:

  • Dynamic traffic loads based on a flight schedule (multi-agent-technology)
  • Different separation criteria by time or distance (longitudinal, vertical, lateral)
  • Interdependencies of runway crossings or close parallel runways
  • Sequencing strategies or performance of ATC/pilots
  • Taxiing strategies
  • Statistical deviations of all parameters


  • Analysis of runway, airfield and terminal capacity
  • Best possible traffic volumes and reduced delays
  • Future proof approach by using simulation software
  • Elaboration of effective mitigation measures
  • Comprehensive flight schedule analysis for robust capacities
  • Consideration of airport specific operational concepts

The approach has been proven to show the operational limit of the runway, airfield or terminal infrastructure and has gained high reputation with airports and authorities, as the proposed capacities ensure both: best possible traffic volumes and reduced delays.

Security Optimization

Many airports around the world strive for the best possible throughput at their security checkpoint. Moreover, staff should be allocated in the most efficient way. ARC supports airports in this task by applying state-of-the-art simulation technologies.


The security control process at airports consists of several sub-processes, such as preparing trays, bag screening, person screening, secondary search of bags and persons, etc. The final throughput is often based on the weakest element.

By comprehensive on-site measurements and using a detailed security simulation model, ARC is able to detect the throughput of the current security control configuration and how it can be improved. The simulation model considers all relevant interdependencies between the various sub-processes of the passenger and bag flow, which is hardly possible with analytical calculation methods.

Simulation easily allows comparing different scenarios, ranging from different layouts to operational concepts to staffing levels. Thus, the most efficient configuration is identified and costs can be saved by avoiding miss-investing. The simulation model is also a valuable tool to illustrate cause and effect to various stakeholders. It can even be used for training of security staff to demonstrate, how they can support a stable and efficient flow through the security checkpoint.


Airports also trust in ARC to assess the impact of changed regulations or integration of new screening equipment like advanced scanning technology for baggage, persons, or specific li liquid scanners.


  • Optimization of lane layout and operational concept
  • Efficient employment of staff
  • Detection and mitigation of potential bottlenecks
  • Increase of security control throughput
  • Anticipation of changed regulations like LAGs rules or implementation of body scanners

Subset of References

  • Cologne Bonn International Airport (CGN)
  • Hamburg International Airport (HAM)
  • Düsseldorf International Airport (DUS)
  • Stuttgart International Airport (STR)

Airport Data Capture

The acquisition of input data is an essential baseline for system analysis and the setting up of simulation models. ARC therefore provides CAST Survey,  a data collection system based on the latest hardware and software technology for devices with the Android operating system. 


CAST Survey is a powerful tool suite for passenger survey and data capture projects at airports. All data capture applications focus on specific airport processes and are based on the Android operating system, allowing a wide range of handheld products to run them.

With CAST Survey it is possible to capture more relevant data, both with a higher quality as well as with reduced costs during the data capture process. CAST Survey records the operational process parameters associated with various handling resources, e.g.:

  • Flow rates
  • Handling times of various services
  • Transaction times for sub-processes
  • Idle times
  • Detailed show up profiles
  • Type of travel
  • Modal split
  • Group size
  • Bag count

Two different data capture methodologies are supplied:

  • A short interview with 1 or 2 questions is used at the time on a flight-specific basis to assess incoming passenger profiles. More detailed questionnaires are used to record further passenger characteristics.
  • No interviews are conducted for data capture purposes. This means data can be captured from neutral locations with no passenger input or even subsequently based on video recordings.

With the CAST Simulation Software, ARC also provides the right products to make the best use of the gathered data for evaluation and optimization of airport processes: A real one hand solution.

All captured data can be linked to additional information. Show up profiles can be easily generated per flight or transaction times can be separated by the amount of luggage or any other attribute.
CAST Survey significantly facilitates the capturing project. Predefined graphical input schemes follow the actual process flow. The user just has to press the relevant button, when the passenger performs a specified action to set a time stamp. The recorded data is exported to the CAST Survey evaluation software, which allows automated analysis for a quick and comprehensive visualization of the captured data.

Get in touch

How did you hear about us?